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A CRITICAL INVESTIGATION OF LEADERSHIP IN NIGERIA CIVIL SERVICE: A THEORETICAL REVIEW

  • Project Research
  • 1-5 Chapters
  • Quantitative
  • Mean and Standard Deviation
  • Abstract : Available
  • Table of Content: Available
  • Reference Style: APA
  • Recommended for : Student Researchers
  • NGN 3000

Background of the study

Leadership is one concept that has emerged in productive connections between companies and society at large. Leadership is described as the process by which an individual inspires a group of people to work toward a shared goal or the key to trust that stems from the regard of others (Northouse, 2004). It is typically associated with the use of a leading strategy to give inspiring motivation and optimize the possibilities for staff growth and development. Effective leadership is seen as a key source of management development as well as a long-term competitive advantage for increasing organizational performance (Rowe, 2001). Leadership is at the heart and spirit of organizational management. Glantz in 2002 emphasizes the need of a manager developing his or her unique leadership style.

In today's fast-paced global workplace, there is emerging evidence that firms are becoming more aware of the impact leadership styles have on employee well-being and organizational outcomes. Leadership is a critical factor that has a considerable influence on the overall health of organizations and countries (Odumeru and Ifeanyi, 2013). Effective leadership behavior, according to Buelens, Broeck, Vanderheyden, Kreitner, and Kinicki (2006), is based on both the manager's willingness to help subordinates and the subordinates' need for support. A strong connection between a leader and his or her followers requires the leader to recognize the personal values of individuals who are willing to offer their time and abilities to achieve common goals. Organizations require motivated employees to be successful, hence leadership is essential in organizational effectiveness.

Administrative leadership can be found in the setting of a company or the public sector. It entails official authority. Leaders in this context typically have institutional positions, with the status and authority that come with them. Men are predisposed to comply just by acknowledging genuine authority. Every formal organization is thus defined by a hierarchy that ensures the delineation of roles, the assignment of tasks, the gradation and institutionalization of positions, accountability, and communication. Intelligent leadership on the part of the leader, along with dedication to work on the part of subordinates, has provided an organization with the desired success of increasing staff productivity, of which the Nigeria Civil Service is not the only example.

A competent and motivated civil service is required for good governance, the production and distribution of public goods and services, fiscal management and sustainability, as well as the efficient and effective functioning of any government. In Nigeria, the civil service is critical to many governmental tasks. For emerging nations, good governance is critical. The need for effective and efficient resource management in the public sector is undeniably global and historical. This is especially true in a rising country like Nigeria, where there is a severe scarcity of people and natural resources and an ever-increasing need for government spending. In the context of public administration, the civil service is the administrative arm of government, an agency, an organ, and machinery of government in any country's governance and development processes across the world. The significance of the civil service as a tool for a country's socioeconomic and political growth is undeniable. However, in certain areas of the globe, the civil service is a branch of government that is generally united with the executive and is necessary for government to function. Civil service is commonly seen as a component of the larger public sector. This subgroup includes government ministries, departments, and agencies, as well as persons who advise on, design, and implement government policies and programs, as well as those who manage day-to-day operations.

The Nigerian civil service is a product of colonialism, having been founded as a tool for expeditiously implementing the administrative structure and operations of the British Colonialists from the late nineteenth century (Adamolekun, 1993).

The civil service is the administrative branch of the government of Nigeria. It is the organ or agency that allows the government to function correctly. Civil services are being used not just to formulate policies, but also as a civilian instrument. With the rise of the modern state, civil service in emerging nations evolved not only to devise but also to successfully implement policies. To put it another way, the civil service is frequently connected with the effective and efficient management of development policies and programs. To attain this purpose, each ministry and agency requires an effective leadership structure, not just in the organogram but also in practice.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

All around the world, the public service looks to be incapable of dealing with contemporary ideological, political, and economic trends, as well as the management innovations required for effective service delivery. This is backed by Beetseh (2014), who states that in other parts of the world, notably Africa, deficiency in public services is viewed as one of the key causes of socio-political upheavals and economic crises. Recognizing this, some countries have undertaken substantial changes to the structure and operation of their public sector organizations during the last decade. Nigeria is reforming its public sector as part of broader political and economic reforms. In Nigeria, as stated by Beetseh (2014), the civil service, which acts as the hub through which the government implements its policies and programs, is plagued with ethical and accountability concerns, which are worsened by poor leadership, and have hampered the country's overall growth and development throughout the years.

However, officials in the Nigerian public sector have demonstrated a complete lack of understanding of the notions of integrity, accountability, and openness. This is one of the causes of the Nigerian public sector's inefficiency and slow development. Leaders that lack accountability encourage followers to engage in unethical behavior as a result of their strategic laissez-faire approach, which has a detrimental influence on long-term success goals. In a previous study, Obiwuru et al. (2011) discovered a high level of corruption, fraud, mismanagement, embezzlement, dishonesty, lack of transparency, unaccountability, irresponsibility, and indiscipline in Nigeria. Unfair practices including as theft, absenteeism, undeserved promotion, ghost worker fraud, time sheet fraud, and other payroll fraud all begin with the early recognition of unaccountable leaders who are exemplarily bad signals. According to Omitola (2012), the disintegration of ethical and professional standards in practically every aspect of our national life has been related to Nigeria's governance crisis throughout the preceding decades. This is pathetic for the country and cancerous to any part of Nigeria's economic growth and development, because the potentials of the dialectical interplay between leadership and accountability have been gravely hurt. A fundamental transformation in leadership approaches, as well as in general life, is essential for a turnaround. As a result, the researcher intends to perform a theoretical examination of leadership in Nigerian public service.

1.3 Objective of the study

The broad objective of this study is to present a  theoretical investigation of leadership in Nigeria Civil Service. Specifically the study sought:

  1.  To investigate the extent at which leaders in Civil Service are accountable  for  their  actions  and performances.
  2. To examine whether the inefficiency and truancy observed in Federal ministries is as a result of Poor leadership style.
  3.  To investigate whether the appointment and promotion of people into top and sensitive positions in the state civil service based on ethnicity instead of merit  actually affected the morale of the staff negatively and reduced productivity.
  4. To examine if  civil servant in Federal Ministry of Health are  motivated  for high performance   through the integrity  of  their leaders.

1.4 Research Questions

The research is guided by the following questions:

  1. What is  the extent at which leaders in  Civil Service are accountable  for  their  actions  and performances?
  2. Are the inefficiency and truancy observed in Federal ministries caused by poor leadership style?
  3. Are the  appointment and promotion of people into top and sensitive positions in civil service based on ethnicity instead of merit  actually affected the morale of the staff negatively and reduced productivity?
  4. Are civil servant in Federal Ministry of Health  motivated  for high performance   through the integrity  of  their leaders?

1.5 Research hypotheses

The following null hypotheses will be tested in this study:

HO1: The inefficiency and truancy observed in Federal ministries is not pioneered by poor leadership style cognizant in Civil Service.

Ho2: Civil servant in Federal Ministries are not motivated  for high performance  due to  the integrity of their leaders .

1.6 Significance of the study

The study would have both practical and empirical relevance to organization and academia. Practically, to organization, the management board  can use the finding and recommendation of the study to improve the qualities of it organization leadership for the purpose of the subordinate performance. The study would help the government high ranked cadre of civil servant to revert to an ideal type of bureaucracy where appointments and promotions into top and sensitive positions in the state civil service will be on merit and not on ethnicity and the lay emphasis on the  need to uphold the ethic of integrity, accountability and transparency. Finally, the study and its findings will contribute significantly to existing literature on the subject area, students and other researchers will benefit immensely from the work because of its contribution to knowledge and it will also stimulate further researches into the effect of leadership on civil service performance not just within ministry of health Lagos State but in other Ministries and other state in Nigeria.

1.7 Scope of the study

The main focus of this study is directed towards investigate leadership in Nigeria Civil Service. The study ascertain the extent at which leaders in  Civil Service are accountable  for  their  actions  and performances. The study investigated whether the inefficiency and truancy observed in Federal ministries is as a result of Poor leadership style. The study determined whether the appointment and promotion of people into top and sensitive positions in the state civil service based on ethnicity instead of merit  actually affected the morale of the staff negatively and reduced productivity. The study investigated if civil servant are motivated for high performance  through the integrity  of  their leaders.The study is however delimited to Federal Ministry of Health in Lagos State.

1.8 Definition of terms

Leadership: Leadership is both a research area, and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual, group or organization to "lead", influence or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.

Civil Service: Civil service, the body of government officials who are employed in civil occupations that are neither political nor judicial. In most countries the term refers to employees selected and promoted on the basis of a merit and seniority system to work in government ministries and parastatals





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