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A CRITICAL SURVEY ON INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS USED IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BUSINESS STUDIES

  • Project Research
  • 1-5 Chapters
  • Quantitative
  • Simple Percentage
  • Abstract : Available
  • Table of Content: Available
  • Reference Style: APA
  • Recommended for : Student Researchers
  • NGN 3000

Background of the Study

Man had been looking for ways to improve the efficacy of his communication for thousands of years. Aristotle defined those critical factors in the communication process over two thousand years ago. According to him, communication consists of three components: a communicator, a message, and a message recipient. He went on to say that the oral communicator should not just aim to make his speech (message) assignment demonstrative and credible. Lesswell (1998) presented a communication element in the form of a simple question: "who?" "What" is being said, and for what purpose? To whom are you writing? In what circumstance are you? What do you mean by that? What effect will it have? The era of books and chalkboards stretched on for decades, with advances in electronics (hardware) and communication ensuring the age and its technology in the classroom's durability (Jude, 2010).

Meanwhile, millions of people may study anywhere and at any time thanks to the development of the radio cassette and tape recorder. The term "visual" originally became popular in the educational world during the first two decades of the twentieth century, and it refers to any materials that are often employed in classroom instruction. Since 1947, there have been discussions on integrating the library and visual development. The term "instructional materials" was coined on this basis. The integration of technology into education has sparked technical innovation, such as (hardware) machines and (software) materials or transparencies used as educational tools in the classroom.

Davies (1990) claimed that all forms of media, to varied degrees, aid perception, comprehension, training transfer, reinforcement, and extension. Some media are required for the achievement of goals and objectives; therefore, they must be secured and utilised if the goals are to be met. Criterion media, like as maps and photographs, are utilized to study and master any subject in the classroom in a teaching / learning environment. According to Hoben (1991), the research literature has scant evidence. A single medium of education can never sufficient, if only because it will become repetitive, yet variety in instructional media can make classroom teaching more successful.

Modern researchers have tested their capacity to use a variety of media to ensure that their aims and objectives are met. Students favor tape recoding over materials, according to a study of a programmed–instruction journalism course at Marshall University in the United States. Audio-visual resources can give a wide range of sensory experiences that can help to enhance and reinforce topics taught in textbooks. Some students may absorb the flow and structure of concepts more quickly through films or television programs than through textbook assignments and lectures for particular types of learning (Anyanwu, 2000). Each technique of teaching contributes to a collection of diverse and integrated learning activities in collaboration with a variety of different mediums of education.

As a result, modern research is no longer focused on the impacts of isolated educational resources, but rather on the effects of an integrated system that includes a variety of instructional media elements on the teaching-learning scenario. Each media should be treated as part of the teaching/learning system, according to Schram (1996). As a result, certain combinations of various media, such as television plus instructive material, may be far more successful than each one alone. When evaluating the effectiveness of a combination of instructional materials, they should be tested in the location where they will be used.

Viewing the influence of instructional media on teaching in Junior Secondary School from the perspective of contributions, definitions, history, and perception might increase or enlarge the perspectives of users on its impact in the classroom (Adeleke, 2001). Instructional materials, according to Aina (2002), are any materials or resources utilized in a teaching activity to foster a better comprehension of the learning experiences. They're utilized to "create the most rich learning environment possible, assisting learners and teachers in achieving specified goals." They also help the instructor communicate more effectively and the student learn more effectively and long-term.

Because instructional materials are such an important part of secondary school teaching and learning, they are included in the school curriculum. According to Nwagbara (2002), instructional materials improve learning retention and permanency. According to her, teaching and learning with culturally relevant and competent instructional resources, particularly at the elementary and secondary school levels, has great benefits. Educational inputs, such as instructional materials, are critical to the teaching of any topic in the school curriculum. Wales (1995) believed that using instructional materials would help pupils remember newly found data. Savoury (1998) also stated that "a well-planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to banish apartheid, supplement inadequacy of books, and arouse students' interest by giving them something practical to see and do, while also helping to train them to think things out for themselves."

Any topic in school, like other teaching subjects in the curriculum, cannot be properly taught and learned without the use of instructional resources. According to Savoury (1998), instructional materials have not been used in classrooms for a long time. The majority of lessons are delivered orally, with only a few resources provided. It is proper for teachers to employ instructional resources as needed for their teaching in all situations. Pictures, post cards, diagrams, maps, filmstrips, and models, according to Savoury (1998), are all valuable visual aids for teaching.

It's worth noting that some of the instructional resources can be used by a large majority of certified teachers and those undertaking professional training. They do it purposefully because, as their cognate experience during teaching practice supervision demonstrates, the utilization of instructional resources has a beneficial impact on learning outcomes (Adeyanju, 2003). Adeyanju further shows that a survey sample of instructors with multiple years of teaching experience of three (3) and twenty-five (25) years declare that learning assistance enhances technique in an on-going action research by investigators in Winneba District. They also believe that using learning aids reduces the amount of time they spend talking and writing.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Despite their obvious benefits, instructional materials are presently being neglected by both instructors and educational authorities. Where such resources are given, they are woefully inadequate, antiquated, or completely out of use. This is not restricted to the government alone, but also private school administrators such as those who teach business courses (Nkem, 2009). Even the ones that are functioning are not used properly in the classroom by the teachers. It has been noted that officials from the Lagos State Ministry of Education exclusively present such documents at various secondary schools.

The neglect, mismanagement, poor maintenance, and insufficient supply of these instructional materials has resulted in the following problems in the teaching and learning processes: students learn slowly in class, what is learned is difficult to recall, and the teaching and learning processes are disrupted. Students' poor academic performance in internal and external tests, as well as their inability to apply what they've learned, particularly when it comes to technical or vocational skills.

The assessment on evaluating instructional materials used in secondary schools in the Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria, was prompted by the discovered issues.

1.3 Objectives

The objectives of this study were:

1.       To find out whether there is any relationship between teaching materials and teaching  effectiveness among business studies teachers in public secondary schools in Lagos State. 

2.       To examine the relationship between adequacy/inadequacy of teaching materials and teaching effectiveness in public schools in Lagos State.

3.       To assess the relationship between teaching methods and students’ performance in Lagos State secondary schools.

4.       To find out whether the is any gender difference in the academic performance of students due to the use of teaching materials in the public schools in Lagos State.

5.       To investigate whether students’ academic achievements depend on the teaching materials available in the public schools in Lagos State.

1.4 Research Questions

Answers were sought to the following research questions:

1.       Is there any relationship between teaching materials and teaching effectiveness among teachers in Lagos State public schools?

2.       Will there be any relationship between the availability of  teaching resources and students’ performance in Lagos State public schools ?

3.       Will there be any relationship between the use of teaching materials and students’ academic performance in Lagos State public schools?

4.       Will there be any gender difference in the academic performance of students due to the use of teaching materials in Lagos State public schools?

5.       Will there be any relationship between the teaching method and students’ academic performance in Lagos State public schools?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested for this study:

1.       There will be no significant relationship between teaching materials and teaching effectiveness among teachers in Lagos State public schools.

2.       There will be no relationship between the availability of instructional resources and academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Lagos State.

3.       There will be no significant relationship between teaching methods and students’ academic performance in Lagos State public schools.

4.       There will be no significant gender difference in the academic performance of students due to the use of teaching materials in Lagos State public schools.

1.6 The Significance of the Study

This study is specially designed to educate the operational administrator both public and private on the need to ensure adequate supply and utilization of instructional material in the teaching / learning process.

Teachers on their own part will have a better understanding of the roles played by instructional materials and therefore have a change of attitude towards the non-use of instructional materials.

Student-teachers having gone through this research work will realize the need for continuous use of instructional materials when they actually become classroom teachers, when they have left the schools.

The society will also benefit from the findings of this study, as it will help them to have an insight into the use of teaching aids in teaching and learning processes in the school.

1.7 Scope of the Study

The study covered the appraisal of the use of instructional materials in secondary schools in Educational District V in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria.

1.8 Definition of Terms

1)      Curriculum: A course of study offered in schools.

2)      Audio Mats: These are instructional resources that send out sound signal.

3)      Visual Mats: These are the resources that send out light signals in form of symbols and light signs which can be received only through the sense of sight.

4)      Instructional Materials: Anything that assists teachers to teach well in the classroom. Also, those things that help students to learn well in the classrooms.

5)      Environment: Surrounding, that is everything and everyone with whom the individual comes in contact.





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